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SEO SEM Content Creation Email Automation


Keyword Audits User Personas Customer Journey Cohort Analysis


Engagement Retention Cost per Acquisition Lifetime Value Conversions

Convert Insights Into Actionable Intelligence.

One of the secrets to a great digital marketing campaign is knowing what your customers want. This begins with structuring your online analytics so you can draw insights from your customer segments and map their personal journey.

Step 1: Determine Intent

Every visitor has an intent. Whether it is to buy, to browse, or simply to learn, users will judge a site by their expectations. If their expectation is not satisfied, users will bounce. A high bounce rate will penalize your search rank. Generally, if your bounce rate is >50%, your landing page is is not providing what your customers want.

Step 2: Engage

To reduce your bounce rate, start by conducting a keyword audit. If visitors use words relating to your company, they are aware of your brand and are in the consideration phase of your marketing funnel. For users who are considering a purchase, signup, or download, enable a conversion by facilitating a transaction. Oftentimes, websites create unnecessary friction, which leaves users to abandon the site.

However, if a market segment used generic keywords, then structure your content around the most common search terms. This could be in the form of a dedicated to a product page, a blog post, or a gated white paper. The more relevant your landing page is, the higher your site will rank. Interestingly, this tactic is also used in Search Engine Marketing and closely associated with Google's search engine machine learning algorithm, RankBrain.

Step 3: Enlighten & Entice

Once you've reduced the bounce rate, focus on increasing inbound traffic. Start by benchmarking your currents stats so you can quantify success. Here, you want to build a content calendar around your users most pressing questions, concerns, and problems. Then pair the content with a quarterly marketing campaign around channels that are most relevant to you users. This may including advertising, email marketing, SMS marketing, social media, event marketing, among others. Selecting the right marketing mix is based on attribution analytics, feedback from the team, and suggestions from your customers.

Next Steps: Always Be Closing

Now you have a specific and measurable foundation to base your decisions on. The next step is to convert. To find out how to close, connect with me.

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The Huffington Post TechCrunch


Work in origress


Reach Awareness Interest Consideration Exposure

Read All About It.

The role of media is to inform the public.
People turn to the media for information that is objective, timely, and relevant. Unlike marketing, the media is a third party source of information. This could be a reporter, a journalist, or even a blogger. They have the power to influence because it has an established following and is independent. These Influencers can increase awareness, draw attention, and boost traffic through its audience and links to your site. There are many benefits in getting published or featured...if you get covered.

The challenge is finding influencers and convincing them to give a shout out. Influencers can be elusive and seemingly nocturnal. We tend be present without being noticed. There are different ways to connect.

Start with your network. Ask for an introduction through LinkedIn or hustle at events (organizers typically have a list of attendees). Go in with an objective and approach as a conversation. Formal pitches or press releases can be cringeworthy if they are not personalized. Remember, we are human.

Next, Reference to a past article that may be relevant. This shows that you are an active follower. Then provide insights that the audience might not know about. After all, the media is a source to educate, confirm, or demystify.

Finally, be persistent. If you haven't received a response, circle back. Timing and urgency are intrinsically linked. If it is truly important and urgent, it will be covered.

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Work in origress


March, 2016

Pop the Hood.
Let's take a look at what makes the Internet tick.

Knowing what to say is as important as how to say it. In the digital world, it's code. There is a lot that goes on behind the screens. From the humble metatags to artificial intelligence; from Application Programming Interfaces to the Internet Of Things, coding presents knowledge.
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Planning Preparation Situational Awareness Execution



June 2017

Supplying Demand

I graduated Economics just before the Great Recession. Back then, my lecture notes made sense. They Then the world economy had a meltdown. From Wall Street to Main Street to University Avenue, economic theories collapsed. Central banks from around the world could not lower interest rates enough to get consumers to consume. The switches and levers we thought would work, didin't. We had to throw our textbooks out the window. We had to rebuild. We had to relearn. We had to innovate.

Now, we need to tune into the economic vital signs in order to make the right decision. Sometimes, rational decisions are not always intuitive. But it's critical to anticipate tomorrow's economic weather to insulate yourself from risk.

The three technologies I believe that will have the greatest impact for the next decade are blockchain, Artificial Intelligence, and Graphene.


San Francisco, California



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Oliver Leung HuffPost
APRIL 2017
This piece contributed to 170,000+ views on YouTube.
There is a vault near the Arctic Circle that is fit for a Snow Queen. It’s cold, isolated, and perfect for storing treasures. The treasures here are not precious metals or cryptocurrencies. Rather, the treasures are seeds that are protected from environmental catastrophe

Since 1903, more than 93% of fruit and vegetable varieties in the U.S. have gone extinct. At first, crop variety may seem a trifle, but the impact of crop extinction has a serious effect on our food supply.

In a recent study funded by the Government of Norway, 29% of the total wild relative plant species are completely missing from the world’s genebanks. Specifically, the crops that are under threat are:

  • 6% of cereal crops (wheat, maize, rice, sorghum etc.)
  • 18% of legume species (the wild relatives of beans, peas, and lentils)
  • 13% of botanical family (e.g. potato, tomato, eggplant, and pepper)

The World Hamper

“You are to take every kind of food that is to be eaten and store it away as food for you and for them.”
- Genesis 6:21

The Crop Trust manages the Svalbard Seed vault, which stores over 880,000 seeds from around the world. It is one of the most environmentally and geologically stable locations for seed preservation and security. The vault is buried deep inside a mountain where the permafrost helps to chill the rooms to -18℃. This optimal temperature ensures low metabolic activity, which keeps the seeds viable for long periods of time.

“The Svalbard Seed Vault is a library of life for which we have an incomplete card category.”
- Cary Fowler

Storing seeds at Svalbard Seed Vault is free and the depositor owns the seeds. If and when a withdrawal occurs, it’s bittersweet. In September of 2015, the Syrian CGIAR Genebank made a withdrawal due to the conflict in Aleppo, Syria. Although the transaction was unfortunate, the value of hosting seeds in a remote location demonstrated the Vault’s value.

Reaping What We Sow

Cary Fowler of the Crop Trust explains that in order to secure our food supply under our dynamic climate conditions, we need to develop crop varieties that can cope with heat, drought, flood, and other extremes.

The use of crop genetic diversity in plant breeding can contribute significantly to protecting the environment:

  • Crop varieties that are resistant to pests and diseases can reduce the need for application of harmful pesticides
  • More vigorous varieties can better compete with weeds, reducing the need for applying herbicides
  • Drought resistant plants can help save water through reducing the need for irrigation
  • Deeper rooting varieties can help stabilize soils
  • Varieties that are more efficient in their use of nutrients require less fertilizer.

Discovering and preserving these qualities begin with finding and collecting seeds. According to Crop Trust, it only costs $625 to conserve a single crop variety. Mr. Fowler explains that there are many orphan crops have value, utility, and integrity, but haven’t been adopted for its intrinsic traits.

Feeding The World

Lathyrus Sativa is also known as Grass Pea. It is a robust crop that can withstand severe drought and flooding. It is often the only alternative to starvation when other crops fail. But the Grass Pea also has a neurotoxin potent enough to cause lathyrism, which permanently paralyzes adults from the knees down and cause brain damage in children with prolonged consumption.

Breeders and farmers are now exploring ways to capitalize its resilience without the side effects of the neurotoxin. This is just one example of using crop diversity to curb hunger.

Today, GoPro announced a partnership with Crop Trust and created a video (above) to help raise awareness of our global food crisis. Together, Gopro is matching donations made to the Crop Trust to further its mission of raising $50,000.

Extinction is not about the last individual dying. It’s about a species’ inability to evolve. It’s easy to think that the future of our crops is dependent on us. But how dependent are we on our crops?
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Oliver Leung HuffPost
Exclusive look inside CISCO's Hyper Innovation Living Labs (CHILL)
Earlier last month, Cisco Systems was ranked 31st by the Boston Consulting Group’s Top 50 Most Innovative Companies of 2015. Although it may not be a surprise to see Cisco on the list, it is rare to see how Cisco nurtures innovation.

Innovate verb in·no·vate \ˈi-nə-ˌvāt\
Innovation is strongly associated with gadgets and gizmos, but the term’s origin is in the latin verb, innovare - to make change. Innovation requires human intervention to plan, build, and manage its chaotic forces. At Cisco, the innovation engine is driven by five pistons: Build, Buy, Partner, Invest, CoDevelop.

Within this innovation machine is a little known jewel called, Cisco Hyper-Innovation Living Labs (CHILL). True to its name, CHILL provokes disruption by emulsifying solutions from non-competing companies in various industries. This involves mustering senior executives from Fortune 500 companies at undisclosed locations around the globe for 48 hours.

The locations of these conclaves are trivial; it’s the ideas and solutions, which are most intriguing. After several several attempts, I was fortunate to meet with the oracle of CHILL, Kate O’Keeffe.

The Alchemist
Kate is originally from Melbourne, Australia, and has traversed the globe to fulfill her Personal Legend. It would seem like an overnight success for anyone to go from the owner for a bridal shoe store in Australia to commandeer one of the largest tech companies in the world. However, her journey through the precarious forest of innovation can be characterized by one word - persistence.

One of Kate’s initiatives was creating Cisco’s Services Excellence Innovation Center (SEIC), which fosters ingenuity within Cisco. Instilling change within a Fortune 100 company is not easy, let alone a successful implementation. But her tenacity had achieved results: 1 in 40 internal ideas became fully implemented within the company, which was 3 times higher than the industry benchmark.

We met inside Building 10 at Cisco headquarters in San Jose. We are surrounded by toys - Legos, trains, 3D printed sculptures, and a curious dollar bill mounted on the wall. They are not presents for the twins Kate’s expecting; it is for the engineers to build low fidelity solutions.

Innovation vs. HyperInnovation
Innovation at a large organization is traditionally nurtured and deployed internally. As a result, solutions are insular and focus on acute pain. Unfortunately, 70-90% of these projects fail. CHILL has a peculiar business model because it creates solutions for its partners with its partner’s partners.

The fundamental difference between innovation and hyper-innovation is the aggregation of multiple organizations, working together to alleviate chronic and systemic problems. Kate explains that every CHILL involves a multi party dialogue between 5-6 corporate partners. This cross pollination of ideas and resources lead to breakthroughs that would not normally occur in isolation.

Living Labs
Large corporations are notorious for being lumbering giants that are conservative in planning, slow to build, and hierarchal in management. CHILL disrupts this notion by giving teams autonomy and access to technical talent, strategic partners, and seed capital. All under one roof, within 48 hours.

A Living Lab occurs once a quarter. 12-16 weeks before a lab occurs, an anchor partner approaches CHILL with problems to solve. Based on the use cases, four to five partners are curated and invited to join the lab. These partners are selected based on mutually symbiotic traits. For example, Nike, Lowe’s, and Costco wanted to create a frictionless shopping experience. Consequently, Visa was invited to provide domain expertise in payments. During this pre-lab stage, code libraries are built, letter of intents are forged, and teams are wrangled.

The actual lab is an intense 48 hours of co-creation with all participating partners present. The collective group of over a hundred individuals is then mixed into 4-6 teams. Each team includes a dozen Cisco engineers, business units, and most importantly, the end user. Together, they tussle over 8-12 rounds of customer feedback, distilling concepts with each iteration.

“Tailored short-term teams with radically diverse yet relevant skills help identify opportunity areas quickly.“
- Harvard Business Review

CHILL is a bootcamp for innovation. The Minimum Viable Products (MVP) are raw prototypes born from sheer brute force. Kate emphasizes that the innovation process is rarely linear. Three of Five Teams have scrapped their MVP in favor of a new concept, hours before presenting their efforts to senior executives. This places incredible pressure on the engineers tasked with spawning butterflies from caterpillars within the final 24 hours.

The ownership of Intellectual Property (IP) can also be ambiguous when it is co-created by multiple companies. CHILL resolves this hurdle by having all parties agreeing to equally split the IP rights created in the lab. Should a spin off company occur, the IP is likely transferred to the company, in exchange for shares. This asset transfer model has a similar structure with University Technology Transfer Offices.

Bippity, Boppity, Boop
Within 48 hours, projects are vetted by a senior executive investment team. In this Shark Tank setting, projects are evaluated and investment secured on the spot based on the value at stake and the presence of a joint investor. Investments are accelerator sized ($10K - $200K per project) with additional funding available in tranches. At the time of publication, only strategic partners are involved in financing CHILL’s spin offs. However, investment from private venture capital firms are in the works for 2016.

After the circus rolls through, the real work begins. Funded teams are expected to develop consumer grade products within 60 days of the lab. Since the inception of CHILL, a third to two thirds of projects have been progressed to further stages. Kate explains that success is measured by growth, both in terms of operational excellence and on the balance sheet.

Kissing Frogs
Innovators understand that commercial success is statistically improbable. The motivation is in the opportunity to develop a breakthrough that becomes a sustainable and scalable competitive advantage. It becomes less about the number of frogs kissed, than it is about the number of princes that appear.

The most notable aspect of CHILL is the manner of how innovation is created and deployed. The creative process nurtures agile development and operational freedom. Although CHILL is still in its infancy, there are early indications of a healthy harvest in a matter of months.
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Oliver Leung HuffPost
APRIL 2017
Machines are great at doing things that humans find repetitive, dangerous, or mundane. According to a report by TATA, early adopters of Artificial Intelligence generated average revenue increases of 16% (2015) whereas laggers saw a modest 5% revenue growth.

The reasons are obvious -- machines don’t get bored, weary, or experience pain. All of which can be associated with accounting...unless you’re an accountant. (Sorry, Dad CA, CPA, CGA, CMA).

Traditional accounting software has been relatively static. We’ve moved from hardcopy to software, to the cloud. But the data entry itself has remained constant.

My father taught me that in accounting, the output is only as good as the input. In other words, garbage in, garbage out. This was an important lesson because in order to make sound business decisions, the entries needed to be accurate and coherent.

Machines That Walk The Talk

Ernst & Young (EY) announced in 2016 it would spend $400 million in using A.I. to automate much of the labor involved in auditing clients’ finances. It’s a bold bet on machines. The opportunity is compelling. “Artificial intelligence and robotics are fundamentally reinventing the workforce,” says Uschi Schreiber, Chair of the Global Accounts Committee at EY.

But A.I. not just for the giants of accounting. Xero, recently revealed that its technology uses detailed statistical analysis to learn from and assist the individual business and their partner based on their own specific circumstances.

The automation will mean small businesses no longer need to worry about where their invoices are filed. The machine learning automation evolves with the processes used by the business owner and their advisor — when the small business comes to create their next invoice, Xero automatically suggests the account code so they don’t inadvertently make a mistake.

Xero’s new technology seeks to build a bespoke, personalized assistant for small businesses and their accountants to cut the administrative burden, prevent mistakes, and enable them to spend more time growing their business.

With over 10 million unique accounting codes, there is a growing need for smarter accounting systems. According to a report by Minefield’s, one of the top functional areas that Robotic Process Automation (RPA) may have the most benefits include invoice processing. It not a surprise that the volume and categorizing of invoicing is important, but tedious work.

In the last 12 months, Xero has processed more than $1.2 trillion of global economic activity and recently surpassed a million subscribers, giving it a unique and high-value dataset to drive insights and machine learning.

According to Xero CEO, Rod Dury, “Machine learning and automation will open up the next phase of innovation in accounting, driving a transition in the industry bigger than the move to the cloud did ten years ago. With technology doing more of the time-consuming, data entry work, we will see more accountants take on advisory and virtual CFO roles within the small businesses they support.”

“Rather than just keying in data, they’re interpreting the output - and with the power of machine learning, they’ll provide higher level advisory services that help clients feel in control of their finances which is a key human function that cannot be replaced.”

According to Xero, small businesses take an average of 1 minutes and 38 seconds to create an invoice in Xero — that works out to 13,600 hours or 6.8 years worth of time every day. For every second machine learning helps to shave off that average edit time, Xero’s latest innovation will save the world around a working month every day.

Angels & Demons

While one person may see A.I. as an opportunity, another may perceive a threat. In a 2013 University of Oxford study, Accountants and Auditors have a 94% probability of automation. A similar conclusion was made in a separate study by Deloitte, where Accountants and Tax Advisors were found to have a 95% probability of automation. This is in light of the higher education that accounts need.

It is clear that machines are apt to particular business processes that are manual and repetitive. However, it is also important to understand that workforce automation is not a zero sum game. According to Randstad, a global recruiting agency, “transactional roles like general ledger, accounts receivable and payable may be endangered, but other higher-skill roles like financial planning and analysis or business controlling would still be in high demand.”

Progress is desirable. Not necessarily easy or wanted. Whatever your situation, it is critical to ask, am I adding value? Critical thinking is an edge that humans have over machines...for now.
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Oliver Leung HuffPost
You’ve got to know when to hold them;
know when to fold them;
know when to walk away;
know when to run.

- Kenny Rogers
I beat Cepheus at several matches (700 hands) of Poker. For those unaware, Cepheus is the “unbeatable“ poker machine developed by a team of Computer Science PhDs at the University of Alberta. What makes this victory interesting is that I am less than novice - I have played Poker about dozen times (with a career loss of $15). Cepheus, on the other hand, has the experience of a billion billion hands, a memory of over 11TB of poker plays, crunched at 6 billion hands/second.

Man vs. Machine

Although computers have mastered games such as Chess, Checkers, and Connect4, Poker is distinct because it lacks perfect information - your opponent’s hand.

According to the Cepheus Poker Project site:
“A perfect solution to the game is a strategy that is guaranteed to not lose money in the long run. While Cepheus does not play perfectly, it is so close to perfect that even after playing an entire lifetime of poker against it — over 60 million hands — it is impossible to tell the difference. It is essentially perfect.”

The keyword is long run. The reason I was able to beat Cepheus was because of the brevity of the matches. However, as John Maynard Keynes would say, “in the long run, we’re all dead.” In other words: it is rather impractical to rely on probabilities that approach one when it is intrinsically linked with forever. A more impressive feat would be a monkey who could produce the works of Shakespeare, given sufficient time.

Game. Set. Match.

Given the claims of perfection and my handicap, my chances of winning would seem impossble. Perhaps I got lucky. What struck me about Cepheus was how aggressive it was during preflop. It seemed like it was trying to shake me like a Polaroid picture. Reluctantly, I made calls I wouldn’t normally make because I wanted to see what cards the machine was holding. At times, paying to play played off.

Here is the breakdown of the match:
Oliver Leung HuffPost

A Beautiful Game

We can’t talk about poker without paying homage to the late John Nash, who tragically passed away with his wife last May. Dr. Nash (Noble laureate and protagonist in A Beautiful Mind) developed the idea of “Non-Cooperative Games,” in which a player must decide on an action (e.g. check, call, raise) without knowing the reaction of the opponent.

With a database of over a billion billion hands, Cepheus is able to calculate the probabilities of it’s opponent’s actions, and therefore, predict a favorable outcome even if it means folding the winning hand. In Poker, limiting losses is as important as maximizing gains.

While it is possible to bluff Cepheus, playing poker without risk is not risk at all. Poker with humans involves consequences, which is never absent from emotions. After all, Russian roulette is not the same without a gun.

Think you have what it takes to break the machine? Deal with it.
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Oliver Leung TechCrunch
MAY 2015
This article accurately forecasted NASDAQ's growth of 4-7% (actual: 6.95%) for 2015.
Federal Reserve Chairwoman Janet Yellen weighed in on the prospects of an equity bubble equity bubble at a meeting with International Monetary Fund Director Christine Lagarde earlier this month. The danger warnings beat to the drums of Mark Cuban’s worse than 2000 prediction because the tech sector was singled out as the asset class with overinflated valuation.

A quick glance at the NASDAQ Composite Index’s breach of the infamous 5000 would seem to support these claims. For those who remember Y2K, it was an era that put the Great Gatsby to shame. It has been 15 years since the dot-com crash. Should we be worried about a sequel?

Oliver Leung Techcrunch

A bubble is like #TaylorSwift – a nightmare dress like a daydream.

The classic definition of a bubble is rapid, increase in asset prices that is followed by a collapse in prices arising from speculation or enthusiasm rather than intrinsic increases in value. In other words, it’s a blank space that will leave you breathless and with a nasty scar.

Key Performance Indicators

The NASDAQ is the barometer for the tech sector because of its large portfolio of technology companies, collectively valued at over $9.1 trillion (2015). The argument for the existence of bubbles is often based on absolute volume, valuations and base points.

However, these figures are not indicative of a bubble because these do not measure speculation. It’s like saying we are driving 100 mph and, therefore, the engine is overheating. It’s fast, but not necessarily hot.

Look closer and you will see significant and measureable differences between 2015 and 2000:

Oliver Leung Techcrunch

A high PE Ratio could indicate overvaluation, meaning the share price is expensive relative to the overall market. During the dot-com boom, investors were willing to pay a 152x premium on stocks. In 2015, PE ratio is much closer to the industry average of 19.1.

Oliver Leung Techcrunch

The PB Ratio measures the current market price with the book value of equity or the book value of assets less liabilities. A large deviation between stock prices and book value may reflect assets that are over valuated.

Oliver Leung Techcrunch

The GT Ratio measures the performance of an asset, calculated by the aggregate growth rate (%) divided by months. Suppose a leading indicator of a bubble is an asset that grows more than 3x in 5 years (PT = 5.0); a GT ratio > 5 is a signal of a bubble. Keep in mind, early stage tech investors expect returns higher than 3x in 5 years.

Diversified Portfolio

Diversification reduces risk. In 2000, the NASDAQ had 64.9 percent of its components in the technology sector. While in 2015, only 43.3 percent is from the tech sector. This reduces exposure to inherent volatility of technology.

Oliver Leung Techcrunch

Intrinsic Value

Fifteen years ago, it was not uncommon for investors to cut checks based on a slick pitch deck and watch it burn on a Super Bowl commercial. Today, technology investors are savvier, organized and better equipped. More often than not, investors are demanding paying (i.e. traction) and returning (i.e. stickiness) customers because the voting dollar represents customers who are willing to pay for a good/service. This intrinsic value was not prevalent during the dot-com bubble.


Comparing the trend lines of the NASDAQ, Dow Jones, S&P 500, and the NYSE, it is clear that the NASDAQ was in a bubble that burst at the turn of the millennium:

Oliver Leung Techcrunch

Contrasting with the years preceding 2015 in the same time scale, there is a uniform trend with the other stock markets, reflecting growth in all sectors:

Oliver Leung Techcrunch

Bubble, Bubble, Toil and Trouble

Markets are irrational and corrections can and do occur. If a bubble were to form, it would likely occur in the biotech sector because it has experienced a rapid a growth rate of 500 percent in four years (GT=10.4) combined with a PE ratio of 40. This sector was also singled out in the Federal Reserve’s Monetary Report. However, the damage of a biotech correction is somewhat limited to the 11.2 percent ballast on the NASDAQ.

To Infinity & Beyond?

The current (2015) bull market is not indicative of a tech bubble, but the U.S. economy is unlikely to sustain growth at the same rate because of exogenous and endogenous reasons:

  • Business Cycles: Natural cyclical oscillations occur on average every 58.4 months.
  • Global: Eurozone’s economy remains unstable and China’s GDP has been contracting steadily.
  • Interest Rates: The Federal Reserve is expected to raise interest rates by around 0.25 percent, which would cool the U.S. economy.

Given these factors, the NASDAQ Composite Index is likely to experience diminishing marginal returns with a lower growth rate of 4-7 percent for 2015 (down from 14.75 percent in 2014). Note: shelf life of this article is best before January 1, 2016.
Oliver Leung
Born in Canada
Bred in Australia
Forged in America
In 1923, George Mallory was asked why he wanted to conquer Mount Everest. He replied, Understanding why breathes meaning into life. We may not understand the cause, or the reason, or the motivation. Nor will we know how long our journey is. But there is something potent about the pursuit. The pursuit of purpose.

My modus operandi is based on:
Curiosity The more I learn, the more I realize how much I don't know.
Integrity What is right is not always popular. What is popular is not always right.
Tenacity Success is not a coincidence; it is fought for.
Empathy Understanding perspective is the bond of society.

If asked why I do the things I do, it is because I wonder. Because it is moral. Because it matters. Because I care. Then I will keep climbing. Because life is short.
"Life is either a daring adventure
or nothing at all."